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All the books I have read pertaining to Caddo art, Native Art and Culture, and Pottery and what I learned from them.

Bibliography & Links: Text
  1. Looting The Spiro Mounds An American King Tut's Tomb, David La Vere, 2007 (read twice)
    This book explains the kingdom of the Spiro culture the best that it can and how the artifacts are looted and scattered all over the nation. It also describes the importance of the Spiro mounds and their similarity to Caddo Indians.


  2. Caddo Indians Where We Come From, Cecile Elkins Carter, 1995,
    This explained the culture and history of the Caddo in depth.


  3. The Hasinai Southern Caddoans as Seen by the Earliest Europeans, Herbert Eugene Bolton, 1987
    Explained in great detail aspects of the Caddo culture.

  4. Legacy in Clay: Prehistoric Ceramic Art of Arkansas, Kent C Westbrook, 1982
    Very good descriptions of Mississippian pottery and references to pottery firing from Dumont.

  5. The Many Faces of Mata Ortiz, Lowell, Hills, Quintana, Parks, Wisner, 1999
    A very good reference to the revivalist Juan Quezada and the Mata Ortiz methods of ceramic production from a contemporary exploratory method. Also realized Mata Ortiz and Casas Grandes pottery is NOT NATIVE AMERICAN. No tribe, No language, No dance, No culture specific to a tribe. It is Mexican.

  6. The Living Tradition of Maria Martinez, Susan Peterson, 1977.
    Another very good reference to a revivalist Maria Martinez, her contribution to the ceramics world and native pottery, details about the methods of the SW Indians.

  7. A Rediscovering of Caddo Heritage, Gonzalez, Cast, Perttula, Nelson, 2005
    Good reference to Caddo Pottery from an excavation. Also explanation of pottery procured for the museum from a looted site and good explanations of pottery pieces and their details.

  8. Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand, Townsend, 2004
    Very detailed information about the Mississippian Indians and pottery including Caddo and symbology information.

  9. Art of the Ancient Caddo, Jack Bonds, 2006
    A multitude of Caddo Pottery examples in full color which is a lot to be said about a publication by a curios and looted pottery trader. Unfortunately a must see, though there is no information given about any of the pieces which could represent fakes and forgeries.

  10. The Caddo Nation, Timothy K Perttula, 1992
    A very in depth study of the Caddo Nation though mostly about the politics of the post contact culture.

  11. Source Material on the History and Ethnology of the Caddo Indians, John R Swanton, 1942
    Very good information about the traditions and culture pre and post contact.

  12. The Caddo Indians tribes at the Convergence of Empires 1542-1854, F Todd Smith, 1995
    Good information but mostly about contact and politics of moving.

  13. The Caddos, The Wichitas, and The United States 1846-1901, F Todd Smith, 1996
    Mostly information of post contact dealings.

  14. The Traditions of the Caddo, George A Dorsey, 1997
    The Caddo Myth stories which include information about the serpant as seen in the piasas.

  15. Handbook of Texas Archeology: Type Descriptions, Dee Ann Suhm, Edward B Jelks, 1962
    The ultimate catalog of Caddo styles and type descriptions, many examples though in black in white.

  16. Hasinai, A Traditional History of the Caddo Confederacy, Vynola Newkumet, Howard Meredith, 1988
    awesome information about the history of the Caddo and how we interact with our world, and other people, our traditions, and how our dance explains us.

  17. Certain Caddo Sites in Arkansas, Mark Raymond Harrington, 1920
    Lots of information about ceramics in burials. Good mention about the purple or bluish clay with iron and manganese, also very descriptive about the Blue-green glauconite slip used ceremonially to bury pottery.

  18. History of the Caddo Indians, William B. Glover, 1935
    Aggravating to read, but a very good source of information about the specific Yatasi tribe, which was my Great-Great Grandmother's tribe. It talks about their location before removal.

  19. Classics in Texas Archeology, V1. Caddo Archeology, Reprint Foreword Timothy Perttula, 2009.
    A wealth of information about Caddo burial mounds, an interred pottery. Also goes a long way to clarify the newly understood differences between cultures on past recorded burial excavations.

  20.,, University of Texas Austin, 2003
    Very comprehensive site about the Caddo indians, tradition, culture, pottery, history, and present. One of the best references.

  21. Sun Circles and Human Hands, The Southwest Indians - Art and Industry, Emma Lila Fundabark, 1957.
    Information and artwork of SE indians helped to more clearly distinguish SEC native artwork and icons from the Caddo culture.

  22. The Caddo of Texas, Lucile Davis, 2003
    A Children's book, but informative nonetheless. I would pass it down to my kids!

  23. Clay and Glazes for the Potter, 3rd Ed., Daniel Rhodes, 2000
    Very nice and technical book that describes the processes of making your own clay, and the materials involved, and their effects and results. Nice rare sought after book

  24. The Structure of Caddo Leadership in the Colonial Era, Dr. George Sabo III, 1998
    As mentioend in the Reflection section I like his interpretation of the Mother and Daughters story and how that explains the Caddo matrilineage and support systems. Also liked the explanation of hierarchical relationsips.

  25. Notes on Replicating Prehistoric Pottery, John Miller
    Incredible record of lifes work studying SE and Caddo indian pottery art and techniques. Summary of how to create the clay, pottery, and fire.

  26. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, V.1, V.2, Edited by Fredrick Webb Hodge, 1907.
    An almost comprehensive encyclopedia of Native American cultures and tribes. Includes some very good information about the many tribes of the Caddoan culture, like the Kadohadacho, Natchitoches, Nebadache, Nacogdotches, Yatasi, Hanai, Bidai, Cahinnio, etc. Also has some structure building information.

  27. Through Indian Eyes, Readers Digest Association, 1995
    Book about the different Native American cultures and tribes. Not a whole lot of information, but does distinguish some SE Indian cultures and events.

  28. Handbuilt Pottery Techniques Revealed, Jaqui Atkin, 2004.
    Nice simple book about handbuilding pottery using several different techniques, traditionally and contemporary

  29. The Caddo Chiefdoms, Caddo Economics and Politics 700 - 1835, David La Vere, 1998.
    Very good book about the Caddo leaders and their influences. Also great account of succession of Caddo Caddis. Also has a good account of areas the individual tribes lived in, like the Yatasi.

  30. The Other Color, Replicating the Black Stain on Avenue Polychrome Pottery, John Miller, 2010.
    Awesome article about the creation of a black stain made of manganese that is used to create a black or dark chocolate brown color on pottery without the use of slip.

  31. Flight of the Caddos, Dorothy Crowder, article 19??.
    Short article on the removal assisted by Robert S. Neighbors. Though it does mention something interesting about archeoligists mentioning that the Caddo's might have come from the Mediterranean or North Africa rather than over the Land Bridge from Asia.

  32. History of Caddo Jake Crossing, Carolyn Barker, dedication 19??.
    22 page circular about the History of the Caddo Jake Crossing bridge. Has pictures of my Aunt Maude Miller Whitebead and Caddo Jake.

  33. Effects of Temper on Strength of Ceramics: Response to Bronkitsky and Hamer, James K. Feathers, 1989.
    Very informative study on shell tempering in respect to strength and toughness in Mississippian pottery with some great conclusions drawn from solid scientific experiements. Also references articles from Stimmel 1982 that I would like very much to find.

  34. Caddoan Saltmakers in the Ouachita Valley, Edited by Ann m. Early, 1993.
    Detailed account of the Hardman site, that explained very definitely where Caddo's made salt as an industry. Suggested salt being used in ceramics with shell temper might cause vitrification into glass. Talked about saltpan wares.

  35. A Guide to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma, Muriel H. Wright, 1951.
    I read all of the Caddo tribes and bands in the book along with the associated Caddoan tribes and surrounding tribes, Wichita, Kichai, Tonkawa etc. Good information about history, places, and some unkmown chiefs.

  36. The Plains Indians, Their Origins, Migrations, and Cultural Development, Francis Haines, 1976.
    Brief information about the Caddos and Caddoan family tribes and how they interacted with the plains tribes. Described how a couple of plains tribes developed north out of the Caddoan tribes about the time when Spiro was declining.

  37. Low-firing and Burnishing, Sumi von Dassow, 2009.
    Very awesome book on low firing and burnishing techniques.

  38. Tsa Ch' Ayah, How the Turtle Got Its Squares, told by Sadie Bedoka Weller, Translated by Wallace Chafe, 2005.
    Cool children's book on a traditional Caddo story that has the english translation after the Caddo language version.

Bibliography & Links: Text

    • Native American Art and Architecture AH748 Volume 4, compiled by Pref. Denise Smith, Fall 1997.
      • Native American Art and Architecture class book about the Plains and Pueblo indians pottery, blankets, and home contruction.

  • Out of the Earth, Into the Fire, Mimi Obstler, 1996, 2000.

    • Very detailed bnook about the minerals of ceramics, how they work, expecially in stoneware claybodies and glazes. Very informative about the use of all minerals in clay. Talks briefly about the "Clay as the origination of life" theory.

  • Native American Art and Architecture AH748 Volume 1, compiled by Pref. Denise Smith, Fall 1997.

    • Native American Art and Architecture class book about the pottery and architecture of SouthEastern and Mississippian tribes.

  • Classic Maria Martinez, Native American Pottery Maker of San Ildefonso, DVD, National Park Service Film, 1999.

    • Very brief but informative video about Maria, her techniques, and legacy. Quickly shows them collecting clay,building and firing pottery.

  • The Mata Ortiz Pottery Phenomenon, DVD, AMOCA and Hillside Productions, 2007.

    • An interesting documentary about the beginnings of Mata Ortiz pottery and their relationship to the Paquime Indians of the Casas Grandes ruins and pottery shards. Also about how Juan Quezada started the ceramic industry of their town as it was not a revival. Good information about the use of innovation and how it supports the village.

  • 100 Years of Native American Painting, The Oklahoma Museum of Art and Arther Silberman, 1978.

    • Very beautiful book about traditional and contemporary Indian Artist that were influential, and how their culture influenced them.

  • Born of Clay, National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution, 2005.

    • A nice book with breifs about the different American native culture pottery and if any, interaction. Talks about pots from Peru, being the start of civilization on this side. Also speaks to contemporary Indian artists, and traditional tempers. Talks about ceramics starting in Georgia 4,500 years ago and spreading to the rest of the Northern Americas before the Southwestern pottery tradition.

  • The Inscribing Technique in Ceramic Decoration, Pete Mioir.

    • I liked how this article reiterated and pointed out the specific definitions for the techniques that many people mix up, that is engraving, inscribing, and excising. However it does make the mistake of assuming since the "engraved" lines show no polish, and so therefore since the polishing was done before engraving, that the "engraving" was done after firing. That is a false assumption. Pots can and are incised after polishing but before firing. It also makes a false assumption that the surface of the pot is always a different color than the core. It also submits "inscribing" as a new technique which they posit is different from incising.

  • Woodland and Caddo Ceramic Traditions in East Texas, prepared by Timothy Perttula, 2010.

    • Very informative on the process by which classification of pottery types and analysis is done. Included quotes from Sadie Bedoka explainging vessal forms were done by family, by clan, much like pueblo potters have their family designs. Also it talked about how a Hematite rich slip was used adn burnished in before firing. Redart contains hematite among other things.

  • Life Among the Texas Indians, The WPA Narratives, David La Vere, 1998.

    • Awesome book that shows the stories and perspectives of people of the 1800s during the tumultuous times of American and Native interaction. It showed me too many things to list here, including our orginal numbers before epidemics, federal laws, quotes from Sadie Bedoka on how to make pottery and sifiting using baskets, and Mrs Frank Cussins(Cussens) esplanations of dyes used on pottery, and different clans hacing their own designs.

  • The Clements Site, A Late 17th to Early 18th Century Nasoni Caddo Settlement and Cemetary, Timothy Pertulla, et al., 2010.

    • Talked a little about the Caddo Trace, talks about how the claims of cannabalism are unfounded and the new Hatino Engraved type description.

  • The Indians of Texas, From Prehistoric to Modern Times, W.W. Newcomb, 1961.

    • A little dated, but informative book about the Texas Indians. Good insight about how culture's evolution is like the progression of a river. It also talks about how Kiowas were more related to the same group the Pueblos belonged to. Also some controversial subjects, and more origins information.

  • Materials Used in the Manufacture of East Texas Pottery, Thesis, Sarah Elizabeth Hindman, 1932.

    • Very informative and revealing paper on claybody and temper used in TX pottery. Talks about Frankston, TX having fine white and yellow clays. Also talks about "Featherlight" pottery possibly being created from lignite. The largest source of lignite in the US happens to be the Caddo homeland. Lignite is brown coal. I have a feeling, however, that it might cause pottery to explode in the fire. The paper also shows that teh majority of the pottery in this region are actually a combination of shell, sand, carbon, and potsherds. 26%.

  • The Texas Indians, David La Vere, 2004.

    • Almost too many things to list here. There was information about matriarchs in Caddo society, mentions of chiefs, different Caddo sites, population, St Denis, and one thing very important to me was the information about how Caddos traded directly with the Pueblo Indians, most likely the Pecos Pueblo right at the doorstep to the plains. I learned afterwards that when the Pecos pueblo declined that they joined the Jemez Pueblo. The great pueblo revolt most probably destroyed any pottery evidence of trade in those pueblos.

  • The Belcher Mound, A Stratified Caddoan Site in Caddo Parish, Louisianna, Clarence H. Webb 1959. 2009 reprint.

    • The most significant thing I got from this is that the Belcher Mound might possibly be the home site of the Yatasi band, which was my Great Great Grandmother's band of the Caddo. Also learning that the Haley Engraved and Holly Fine Engraved were ancestrial to the Belcher Engraved type was interesting. Belcher Engraved pottery was more focused around cosmic representations rather than snake and feather representations. The site had carbon datings back to 200 AD.

  • Spiro Mound, The Spiro Mound Collection in the Museum, E.K. Burnett, Forrest E. Clements,1945. 2009 reprint.

    • Good examples of the Museum collected true Spiro pieces and sketches of some hard to discern designs. Explains away soem of the myths surrounding Spiro like the pearls and the "chamber."

  • Earth and Fire, Embrace the ways of the ancients and make your own micaceous bean pot, Kristen Davenport, art. New Mexico Magazine, Aug. 2010.

    • Inspiring and informational article on the use of pottery, specifically micaceous pottery from Felipe and Taos, in functional cooking. Breifly describes construction of the pottery and the types of clay. Also gives good information on contacting the most notable micaceous potters.

  • Folklore of the Caddo Indians, rep. B. Loretta Rooney, School and Society 3203, Section 0545, class Dr. Hook, Nov.23, 1988.

    • A short report by Aunt Loretta (Say-nit Miller) about the Caddos. It mentions the 8 movements of the Caddos since DeSoto and has a very resourceful Bibliography of some books I would like to find.

  • The Assassination of Robert S. Neighbors, West Texas historical Association Year Book, 34. Kenneth F. Neighbors, 1958,

    • Informative article about the Caddo friend, Robert Neighbors and how he was murdered by Ed Cornett. . Also has information about Neighbors being a Freemason, and also about the massacre attackers John Baylor, the same family of the school Baylor here in Oklahoma.

  • Lewis and Clark Expedition, American State Papers Vol. IV, 1832. Historical Sketches of the several Indian tribes in Louisiana, south of the Arkansas river, and between the mississippi and river Grande.John Sibley, 1805.,

    • Brief information about the different Caddo bands of the time including the Yattassee (Yatasi), their location, and how their language was a little different. Also brief information about the Adaize, which are currently claiming tribal authority in Arkansas. It then goes on to give a full description of their journey through Caddo lands and through the original home of the Caddo from time immemorial.

  • Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1892 - 93. J.W. Powell, pt2. Washington Government Printing Office, 1896.

    • Extremely informative report that talks about the different clans of the Caddo, including the Bear, Wolf, Buffalo/Alligator, Beaver, Eagle, Raccoon, Crow, Thunder, Panther, and Sun. Also includes Ghost dance songs written music and translations. Also it has an extensive Caddo word list and definitions.

  • A Concise Dictionary of the Indian Tribes of North America, "Caddo". Barbara A. Leitch, Reference Publications, INc. 1979.

    • Just what the titles indicates, a very concise description of each tribe, in this chapter, the Caddos. It gives location information and approximate population numbers of the 1800s. It does give some good detail about how the burial ceromonies proceed; I think she got much information from John Swanton's "Source Material...". It does talk about how the pottery was second only to the Pueblos.

  • Peyote Ritual Visions and Descriptions of Monroe Tsa Toke, Monroe Tsa Toke, Grabhorn Press, 1957.

    • Very nicely made and beautiful book about the Peyote Ritual, but more about Monroe Tsa Toke and his Kiowa art. It talks a lot about the the ceremonies of the Native America Church, including its earthen alter like the one in the Caddo teepee where they hold the Native American Church regularly. This book was earmarked by letters from Susan Peters to Aunt Doris.

  • An Archaeological Survey of Texas Gila Pueblo - Globe, E.B. Sayles, 1935.

    • Definitely full of good maps and tables, also a lot of information about the Jumanos. Tended to lean towards Jumanos being of Caddoan stock which I don't think I agree with though there was a connection through trade. Other archaeologists support the Jumanos were more Uto-Aztecan. Also mentioned the Caddo land holdings being from the Mississippi to the Rio Grande before the arrival of the Apaches.

  • A Survey of Oklahoma Archaeology Robert E. Bell & David A. Baerreis, 1951.

    • Frankston Focus, Poyner Engraved is considered Caddo but looks very Pueblo, and is near Pueblo influence. Brownware of SE NM is Pueblo but it shows up in Caddo homeland sites, as well as El Paso polychrome and Gila Jumano corrugated wares. I like how on page 97 in the summary it references the distinctivness of the Caddo area climax and how archaeoligical evidence suggest a decline of culture and an advance of pottery and influence with the pressure of northern tribes encroaching on the Caddo territory.

  • The Legacy of Maria Poveka Martinez Michael L Spivey, 2003 orig. 1979.

    • This is definitely a book worth reading. It had lot of information about Maria and her clay and techniques, but also very interesting information about the family and Popovi Da. Popovi Da was an very interesting person and I can relate to him quite a bit. The information about techniques and clay are very insightful.

  • Notes on the Caddo , Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, Elsie Clews Parsons, 1941.

    • I think every page in this book was packed with useful and interesting information. There were a lot of revelations, and lots of connections to previously known info. Tons of good information on genaeology, Caddo language, practices, and history. I think it's a must read for any Caddo wanting to learn more about their culture and history.

  • "Fired Up" , Indian Market publication of the Santa Fean Magazine, vol 39. no.4, pages 127-133, Dr. Bruce Bernstein, 2011.

    • Very remarkable article by Bruce Bernstein on the modern day Indian Market and not specifically it's influences but the direction it has taken and his interpretation on what is considered Traditional pottery and why it is important to maintain.

  • Culture Complexes and Chronology in Northern Texas, With Extension of Puebloan Datings to the Mississippi Valley, Alex D. Krieger, 1947.

    • Lots of information and evidence of the connection between the Caddo and the Pueblos, especially easternmost Pueblo seettlements like Pecos. Talks about ceramic similarities and borrowed methods between the two and where Caddo sherds were found in Pueblo sites and Pueblo sherds found in Caddo sites. Also talks about turquoise and cotton trade with Hasinai prior to 1540s. Also briefly mentions without realizing it that the Caddo women would have also had to travel the 500+ mile distances between the cultures, but that is exactly how the Caddo operated, bringing women as friends and the sign of friendship and kinship.

  • Outdoor Kiln Firing , developed by Department of Instructional Services by Roger Tomhave, Fairfax, Virginia, 1998.

    • Instructional information about true pit firing, bisque pit firing, raku firing, and other 'primitive' pit-fire methods.

  • Design and Meaning in Caddo Ceramics: A Case Study with Protohistoric Fineware, Ann M. Early, Arkansas Archeological Survey 52nd Caddo Conference, Fort Smith, March 26, 2011.

    • Loved the description of possible connections of Hodges and Natchitoches to the Path of Souls by accounts from Espinosa and Caddo origin stories.

  • Caddoan Archeology: Journal, Vol. 8, num. 4, Jan. 1998.

    • A brief article on Knight's Bluff Caddo site, in Texas, but also overviews of past Caddo Conferences, 1989, 1998.

  • Caddoan Archeology: Journal, Vol. 12, num. 1, April, 2001.

    • A report on the findings from the Hardin A site in Texas, and abstracts from Caddo Conference 2000, 2001, and the Brackett Mound site, and a report on Human Effigy pipes from Spiro.

  • Documentation of Associated and Unassociated Caddo Funerary Objects: In the Stephen F. Austin State University Collections, Nacagdoches, TX, Caddo Nation of Oklahoma, HIstoric Preservation Program, Binger, OK 2010.

    • Very nicely designed book with some very interesting ackowledgements. I learned a bit about the NAGPRA process, but not only that but how it is determined whose object are whose. That plays into the world of Native American art and the IACA. Also one very large realization about how and why a lot of Caddo pottery is chocolate brown. They mention how some pottery is reduced, and some pottery is oxidized, and how some are partially re-oxidized. This re-oxidization causes black carbon in reddish pots to partially burn out, which makes it look brown. It also talks about how the majority of all fine, decorated wares are funerary. This should be a warning to pot hunters that if it is in Caddo ancestrial land, and it is fineware, it is a grave you are digging up.

  • Caddo Archaeology Journal: Timothy Pertulla, et. al. Vol. 15, Spring 2006.

    • Interesting article about East Texas sites and the use of a representational snake on pottery as the first or only known representational designs on Caddo pottery. It offers up reasons why the snake might have been used, and it is the Canebreak rattlesnake and the Diamondback rattlesnake. Also talks about the use of INAA to deduce clay chemical compositions and origins.

  • Caddo Archaeology Journal: Stephen F Austin University Press, et. al. Vol. 21, 2011.

    • This journal included the works from John Miller about the reporduction of Southeatern primitive pottery, that gives lots of insight about how prehistoric and primitive pottery was made. Also there is an article that discusses the possibility of Caddo living in my area, of Ada, OK , Pontotoc County because of a found earspool (Caddo elite) and a mound and burial site with pottery like the Caddos. Also contained the summary of events of the 52nd Annual Caddo Conference in Tyler, TX that my wife and I attended.

  • Southeastern Archaeology 30(2) Winter 2011m Shell-tempered Pottery in the Caddo Area: Timothy K. Pertulla, Mary Beth Trubitt, Jeffrey S. Girard.

    • I learned a little more about the time period that the Caddo started adopting the use of shell tempering as well as the type of vessels that would have contained it and their location regionally.

  • Caddo Archaeology Journal: Stephen F Austin University Press, et. al. Vol. 22, 2012.

    • Very interesting article on Caddos possibly being in the Ada, OK Pontotoc County area right where I live. It talks about the Blay/Picket Switch site 34PN1, and how Antle found ceramics, and a possible ear spool. ECU as well as Sam Noble did investigations and have articles and artifacts. There is said to possibly be a large site at the confluence of the Canadian and Canadian Sandy Creek. Also of importance is the possibility of actual SouthWestern wares, black on white, being found in the Caddo site!!!! Also information in a report about how a burial found at Shelby site is similar to burials in Spiro mound as well as a mention that Battle Mound might have been the Naguatex. Also my article on the IACA and pictures of my pottery are in this issue and on the cover.

  • Smoke Firing: Contemporary Artists and Approaches: Jane Perryman, University of Pennsylvania Press, January 23, 2008 .

    • This is the updated edition and almost different book from the original Smoke Firing book, still reading. This has a wealth of information about up to date artists using smoking methods on their usually burnished wares. However, most kiln fire beforehand. Shows very nice contemporary methods.

  • Talking with the Clay: Stephen Trimble, School for Advanced Research Press, 1950 .

    • There is so much information in this book I cannot tell it all here. Mostly about Pueblo methods for handbuilding, clay, and firing methods in detail, but it talks in great depth about how modern Native American Indians struggle with the definition of Traditional verses contemporary. So much information about how clay interacts and results from different firing methods.

  • Smoke-Fired Pottery: Jane Perryman, A&C Black Limited, England 1995 .

    • This is the earlier release of the Smoke Firing book, but it did have earlier artists featured in it and more information about Pueblo firing methods and also alternative hand made kiln construction methods for smoking and saggaring. It was definitely worth a read even though many of the same subjects were revisited in the new book.

  • The Archaeology of the Caddo: Perttula & Walker, University of Nebraska, 2012 .

    • Very detailed book that reviews and corrects archaeological information about the Caddos. There was a wealth of information, so just a few things I learned was about the Bossier focus possibly being the Yatasi homeland area, the Peregrine Falcon being the forked eye motif, and the Red River being over 14,000 years old.

  • Pre-Columbian Shell Engravings from Spiro: Vol. I Phillips & Brown, Peabody Museum Press, 1975.

    • This series of books is amazing. It contains hundreds or more shell engraving designs found at Spiro Mounds. It gives tons of examples of designs and a progression from representational to abstract evolution of designs. The narrative and explanations are quite old and outdated and sometimes downright silly and wrong. But the imagery speaks for itself. Tons of Caddo heritage in these books.

  • Pre-Columbian Shell Engravings from Spiro: Vol. II Phillips & Brown, Peabody Museum Press, 1975.

  • Pre-Columbian Shell Engravings from Spiro: Vol. III Phillips & Brown, Peabody Museum Press, 1975.

  • Pre-Columbian Shell Engravings from Spiro: Vol. IV Phillips & Brown, Peabody Museum Press, 1975.

  • Pre-Columbian Shell Engravings from Spiro: Vol. V Phillips & Brown, Peabody Museum Press, 1975.

  • Pre-Columbian Shell Engravings from Spiro: Vol. VI Phillips & Brown, Peabody Museum Press, 1975.

  • Prehistoric Caddo Indian Pottery Sam Johnson, Caddo Press, 1981 .

    • Really just a copy of the Art of the Ancient Caddo book with a tiny bit more information about typology.

  • Caddo Connections Jeffrey Girard, Tim Perttula, Mary Beth Trubitt, Rowan & Littlefield, 2014 .

    • Tons of information about communication and involvement with other tribes. Major things to note were that Caddo were wearing cotton when 1542 De Soto met them. Cahokia was a large connection via mounds and pottery. Fourche Maline is "pre-caddo" 400 AD to 900 AD. Explains the difference between mississpian and Caddos. Much much more.

  • Three Nations, One Place A Comparative Ethnohistory of Social Change Among the Comanches and the Hasinais During Spain's Colonial Era 1689-1821. Martha McCollough, Routledge, 2004.

    • Lots of interesting facts, a meterorite near Brazos River where there were meetings, Hasinais decentralized structure of government was a stragey of survival, Xinesi disappeared 1720-1770 as the Caddi rose in prominence, Comanches raided Pecos and Picuris pueblos, and Bigotes was Suato, renamed by the Spanish, and De Mezieres tattoo'd himself just like the clans of the Hasinai.

  • Native American Legends of the Southeast Tales from the Natchez, Caddo, Biloxi, Chickasaw, and other Nations. George E Lankford, University of Alabama, 1987/2004.

    • Wonderful myth and legend stories. 3 really good Caddo stories including "Marooned Hero" and "Coyote & Snake".

  • Peering Through the Sands of Time The Archeology of the Caddo at the Kitchen Branch Site (41CP220) in East Texas. Mason D. Miller, M.A., Timothy K. Perttula, Ph.D., and Rachel J. Feit, M.A. contributions: Robert Z. Seldon, Jr., Ph.D. and Chase Earles, Texas Department of Transportation, 2014.

    • This is an iBook publication as a conglomeration of information from a Caddo site in East Texas that I was allowed to participate in and help with some experimental archaeology. In this book I replicated pots from the Kitchen Branch site using local clay and grog (sherds) sent to me from the site. They then took 3d models of the pots and crushed them for analysis. I am very honored to have been invited to work with them on this project. I can't wait to see the full analysis and comparison of my work to the ancient pieces!

  • Los Caddo Y Los Comanche Tribus indigenas americanas de Texas, Sandy Phan, Teacher Created Materials, 2013.

    • This book is in Spanish, so I read it with the help of Google Translate, which did an exceptional job. It is basically a review of Caddo history, although it mentions that the tribes dwindled due to "fighting amongst themselves", which is false. It did however list the dates of one particular Caddi, Jose Maria, dates being between 1842 and 1862.

  • Caddo Archeology Journal Vol. 25, Stephen F. Austin State University Press, 2015.

    • Good information about pottery found at Spiro and the analysis.

  • Caddo Lanscapes in the East Texas Forests, Tim Pertulla, Oxbow Books, 2015.

    • Information about ancient and historic Caddo sites, plus information about culture, NAC, figurines, mockingbird word, ipes, glauconite, plants used, demography, and Caddo Mounds site, and contact with Angel Mounds.

  • The Caddo and their Ancestors, Jeffrey S. Girard, Louisiana State University Press, 2018.

    • Excellent book, easy to read, about Louisiana Caddo, with information about Belcher Yatasi, Nebedache, Douisioni, Adaes, quotes, Nola Davis, burials, galena, frog pipe, plants, and bajan.

  • The Spiro Mounds, a Photo Essay, Larry and Christopher Merriam, Merriam Station Books, 2004.

    • Documents the looting sequence, but shows many pictures of artifacts from Spiro.

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